Memmert Series VO operates at 68 to 392 oF (20 to 200oC) and offers a short heatup time. Its microprocessor vacuum pressure controller is adjustable from 7.5 to 825 Torr (10 to 1,100 mbar). Vacuum drying is suitable for heat-sensitive substances because the vacuum lowers the boiling point of the liquid to be removed. Temperature control is achieved by a combination of localized heating and local temperature sensing. Large-area heating elements are vulcanized onto the entire underside of the thermoshelves, millimeters away from the load. There are minimal energy losses due to thermal insulation and optimal positioning of the conduction heaters.