Pulp and Paper.Hood exhaust systems efficiently evacuate hot air containing water vapor from processes such as the wet end of paper machines and thermal mechanical pulping (TMP) processes. Directing the waste stream through a plate coil heat exchanger recovers significant amounts of heat to water/glycol streams. The recovered heat then can be used to preheat hood supply air as well as heat process water or circulating water for machine room ventilation. Energy recovery eliminates ventilation heating costs for mills located in northern colder climates.
Inside the plate coil heat exchangers, hot air flows in a counter-current direction to the water/glycol stream. Water vapor entrained in the air condenses on the cold surface of the dimpled plate. The presence of water vapor in the airstream increases the condensing coefficient, and the latent heat of this condensation provides high heat recovery rates. The plate design provides a large heat transfer area in a compact space. Low fouling characteristics and ease of cleaning ensure the unit is able to handle cellulose and resins that often become entrained in the waste steam and airstreams from the process. To guarantee the inlet air is saturated and to enhance efficiency, many mills use spray nozzles ahead of the plate coil heat exchanger.
Phosphate Fertilizer.During the production of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), ammonia is vaporized and fed to a reactor (preneutralizer) and granulator. One conventional approach has been to use steam to vaporize the ammonia, placing the ammonia on the shell-side of a kettle-type shell-and-tube heat exchanger. But, significant savings can be achieved using a plate coil heat exchanger to eliminate the steam requirement.
The plate coil heat exchangers are placed strategically in the saturated airstream at the outlet from the scrubber that scrubs reactor and granulator fumes with recirculated scrubber liquor solution. This airstream contains traces of ammoniated phosphoric acid and also is saturated with water vapor. By condensing the water, the latent heat of condensation enables the ammonia required for the reactor and granulator to be vaporized while attaining a high condensing heat transfer coefficient.
The condensed water from the scrubber airstream can be recovered for other uses with a bleed stream. A bleed stream recirculated to sprays above the plate coil heat exchanger reduces fouling and enhances heat transfer at the unit's entrance.
Unlike the shell-and-tube, where a shell must be designed
for the high pressures of vaporized ammonia, only the plate coils have
to be designed for high ammonia pressure.
Higher heat transfer coefficients and compact construction result in a smaller, less costly heat exchanger.
The air side of a plate coil heat exchanger is lower fouling and easier to clean than the tubes in a shell-and-tube.
- Hold-up volume of ammonia is much lower, so process control of the ammonia temperature and pressure is easier and safer to maintain.
This article was provided by Alfa Laval Inc., Richmond, Va. For more information about Alfa Laval's plate heat exchangers, call (804) 222-5300 or visit www.alfalaval.us.